“In the social production of their existence, men inevitably enter into definite relations, which are INDEPENDENT of their will, namely relations of production appropriate to a given stage in the development of their material forces of production. [ΣΧΕΣΕΙΣ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΗΣ :: ΥΛΙΚΕΣ ΔΥΝΑΜΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΗΣ] [ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΙΚΟ ΘΕΜΕΛΙΟ]

The totality of these relations of production constitutes the economic structure of society, the real foundation, on which arises a legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. [ΝΟΜΙΚΗ ΚΑΙ ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΗ ΥΠΕΡΔΟΜΗ to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness. (ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΗΣ ΣΥΝΕΙΔΗΣΗΣ)]

The mode of production of material life conditions the general process of social, political and intellectual life. [ΝΒ] […]

It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence, but their social existence that determines their consciousness. [NB] […]

At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or – this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms – with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. [ΥΛΙΚΕΣ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΙΚΕΣ ΔΥΝΑΜΕΙΣ ΤΗΣ ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΑΣ ≠ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΙΚΕΣ ΣΧΕΣΕΙΣ (με νομικους όρους ΣΧΕΣΕΙΣ ΙΔΙΟΚΤΗΣΙΑΣ)]

From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. [ΟΙ ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΙΚΕΣ ΣΧΕΣΕΙΣ ΠΕΡΙΟΡΙΖΟΥΝ (δεσμευουν) τις ΠΑΡΑΓΩΓΙΚΕΣ ΔΥΝΑΜΕΙΣ]

Then begins an era of social revolution.

The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure.”

Karl Marx, A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

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