There are many examples of these

– innate (unconditioned) reflexes

(corneal, coughing, swallowing, withdrawal reflexes etc.) or

– learned (conditioned) reflexes.

[Schmidt, R. F.; Weisendanger, M. (1989). “Motor Systems”. In Schmidt, Robert F.; Thews, Gerhard. Human Physiology. Translated by Marguerite A. Biederman-Thorson (Second, completely revised ed.). Berlin etc.: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-19432-0.]:p. 82

[a.] In any animal, regardless of its prior history, painful stimulation of the foot causes the leg to be withdrawn by bending at all its joints.

«<This flexor reflex is an example of an unconditioned reflex, an innate response based on fixed connections in the chain of neurons from the receptor (sensor) to the effector.»> [NB]

[b.] Of still more interest in everyday life are the acquired or conditioned reflexes, in which the functional connections between

– the excited sensors and

– the patterns of activity in effector organs

– become established by learning process.”

[Schmidt, R. F. (1989). “Behavior Memory (Learning by Conditioning)”. In Schmidt, Robert F.; Thews, Gerhard. Human Physiology. Translated by Marguerite A. Biederman-Thorson (Second, completely revised ed.). Berlin etc.: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3-540-19432-0.]:p. 155

via: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

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