In philosophy, idealism is the group of philosophies which assert that reality, or reality as we can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
– Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing.
– In a sociological sense, idealism emphasizes how human ideas—especially beliefs and values—shape society.
– As an ontological doctrine, idealism goes further, asserting that all entities are composed of mind or spirit.
Idealism thus rejects physicalist and dualist theories that fail to ascribe priority to the mind.