The Intuitive Distinction

The Intuitive Distinction

Compare the following two sets of sentences:

    I. [ΣΥΝΘΕΣΗ ΕΝΝΟΙΩΝ… ΣΥΝΘΕΣΗ ΜΕΡΩΝ ΜΑΚΡΙΩΝ ΕΙΔΗΤΙΚΑ]

        (1) Some doctors that specialize on eyes are ill-humored. [ΔΙΑΦΟΡΕΡΙΚΑ ΕΙΔΗ ΕΝΝΟΙΩΝ ΠΟΥ ΣΥΝΔΕΟΝΤΑΙ]
        (2) Some ophthalmologists are ill-humored. [ΔΙΑΦΟΡΕΡΙΚΑ ΕΙΔΗ ΕΝΝΟΙΩΝ ΠΟΥ ΣΥΝΔΕΟΝΤΑΙ]
        (3) Many bachelors are ophthalmologists. [ΔΙΑΦΟΡΕΡΙΚΑ ΕΙΔΗ ΕΝΝΟΙΩΝ ΠΟΥ ΣΥΝΔΕΟΝΤΑΙ]
        (4) People who run damage their bodies. [ΟΧΙ ΠΑΝΤΑ]
        (5) If Holmes killed Sikes, then Watson must be dead. [ΝΟΗΜΑΤΙΚΑ ΕΛΛΕΙΠΤΙΚΗ ΠΡΟΤΑΣΗ]

    II.

        (6) All doctors that specialize on eyes are doctors. [ΓΕΝΟΣ/ΕΙΔΟΣ]
        (7) All ophthalmologists are doctors. [ΓΕΝΟΣ/ΕΙΔΟΣ]
        (8) All bachelors are unmarried. [ΠΕΡΙΣΣΟΤΕΡΟ/ΛΙΓΟΤΕΡΟ ΠΡΟΣΔΙΟΡΙΣΜΕΝΟ, ΣΥΝΩΝΥΜΙΑ]
        (9) People who run move their bodies. [ΤΑΥΤΟΛΟΓΙΑ, ΑΝΑΛΥΣΗ ΤΗΣ ΕΝΝΟΙΑΣ ΤΟΥ ΥΠΟΚΕΙΜΕΝΟΥ ΔΕΙΧΝΕΙ ΤΗΝ ΕΝΝΟΙΑ ΤΟΥ ΚΑΤΗΓΟΡΟΥΜΕΝΟΥ]
        (10) If Holmes killed Sikes, then Sikes is dead.

Most competent English speakers who know the meanings of all the constituent words would find an obvious difference between the two sets: whereas they might wonder about the truth or falsity of those of set I, they would find themselves pretty quickly incapable of doubting those of II. Unlike the former, these latter seem to be known automatically, “just by virtue of knowing just what the words mean,” as many might spontaneously put it. Indeed, a denial of any of them would seem to be in some important way unintelligible, very like a contradiction in terms. Although there is, as we shall see, a great deal of dispute about these italicized ways of drawing the distinction, and even about whether it is real, philosophers standardly refer to sentences of the first class as “synthetic,” those of the second as (at least apparently) “analytic.” Many philosophers have hoped that the apparent necessity and a priori status of the claims of logic, mathematics and much of philosophy would prove to be due to

ΑΝΑΛΥΤΙΚΑ ΑΞΙΩΜΑΤΑ: ΑΛΗΘΙΝΑ ΣΕ “ΟΛΟΥΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΔΥΝΑΤΟΥΣ ΚΟΣΜΟΥΣ” ΚΑΙ ΓΝΩΣΙΜΑ ΕΤΣΙ “ΑΝΕΞΑΡΤΗΤΑ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΕΜΠΕΙΡΙΑ.”

these claims being analytic, i.e.,

explaining why such claims seemed to be true “in all possible worlds,” and knowable to be so “independently of experience.” [FN, !!!]

This view has led them to regard philosophy as consisting in large part in the “analysis” of the meanings of the relevant claims, words and concepts (hence “analytic” philosophy, although the term has long ceased to have any such specific commitment, and refers now more generally to philosophy done in the associated closely reasoned style).

Πηγή: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/analytic-synthetic/

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