Kant introduces the analytic–synthetic distinction

The philosopher Immanuel Kant was the FIRST to use the terms “analytic” and “synthetic” to divide propositions into types.
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Kant introduces the analytic–synthetic distinction in the Introduction to the Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1998, A6-7/B10-11).
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There, he restricts his attention to affirmative subject-predicate judgments, and defines “analytic proposition” and “synthetic proposition” as follows:

–    analytic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is contained in its subject concept

–    synthetic proposition: a proposition whose predicate concept is not contained in its subject concept

Examples of analytic propositions, on Kant’s definition, include:

–    “All bachelors are unmarried.”
–    “All triangles have three sides.”

Kant’s own example is:

–    “All bodies are extended,” i.e. take up space. (A7/B11)

Each of these is an affirmative subject-predicate judgment, and, in each, the predicate concept is contained with the subject concept. The concept “bachelor” contains the concept “unmarried”; the concept “unmarried” is part of the definition of the concept “bachelor.” Likewise, for “triangle” and “has three sides,” and so on.

Examples of synthetic propositions, on Kant’s definition, include:

–    “All bachelors are unhappy.”
–    “All creatures with hearts have kidneys.”

Kant’s own example is:

–    “All bodies are heavy,” (A7/B11)

As with the examples of analytic propositions, each of these is an affirmative subject-predicate judgment. However, in none of these cases does the subject concept contain the predicate concept. The concept “bachelor” does not contain the concept “unhappy”; “unhappy” is not a part of the definition of “bachelor.” The same is true for “creatures with hearts” and “have kidneys”; even if every creature with a heart also has kidneys, the concept “creature with a heart” does not contain the concept “has kidneys.”

Πηγή: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytic_proposition

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