The science of logic – die Wissenschaft der Logik – investigates the Idea – die Idee – on its abstract elements for forms.
It investigates solely how the idea is to be thought. On this level, it does inquires yet neither how the idea is intuited in Nature, nor how die idea thinks of itself in Spirit.
The content of the Science of Logic is the truth in itself namely in potency or without the external actualization – ohne Hülle.
Or we might say, Logic is the God prior to His creation of the universe, or in His Pure Essence. Quite clearly distinguished from the normal logic which discerns the form and the content,
the Speculative Logic is the Metaphysics or the Ontology – the Theory of Being.
The Speculative Logic deals with the categories as the real relationships, with the forms of thought as the real forms.
Just as the Being and Thought are one and the same, the Speculative Logic is not only the Science of Thought, but also the Science of Being at the same time.
Three Major Portions of the Logic are:
Being ‹ Objective Logic
Essence ‹ Objective Logic
Concept ‹ Subjective Logic
Being – Sein –
Quality – Qualität –
Being – Sein –
Being – Sein –
Nothing – Nichts –
Becoming – Werden –
Existence – Dasein –
Existence as such – Dasein als solches –
Finitude – Endlichkeit –
Infinity – Unendlichkeit –
Being For Itself – Fürsichsein –
Quantity – Quantität –
Pure Quantity – reine Quantität –
Quantum – Quantum –
Grade – Grad –
Mass = quantitative Quantum – Maß = quantitatives Quantum –
Essence –Wesen –
Essence as such – Wesen als solches –
Phenomenon – Erscheinung –
Actuality = Essence in Phenomenon
– Wirklichkeit = das erscheinende Wesen –
The Inner (Identität) ‹ Possibility – das Innere ‹ Möglichkeit –
The Outer (Untershied) ‹ Accident – das Äußere ‹ Zufälligkeit –
The absolutely Actual = Necessity – das absolut Wirkliche = Notwendigkeit
Substantiality – Substantialität –
Causality – Kausalität –
Mutual Determination – Wechselwirkung –
Concept – Begriff –
Subjectivity – Subjektivität –
Concept as such – Begriff als solcher –
Judgment – Urteil –
Inference – Schluß –
Objectivity – Objektivität –
Mechanism – Mechanismus –
Chemismus – Chemistry –
Teleology – Teleologie –
Idea = Subject ‹ Object – Idee = Subjekt ‹ Objekt –
Life – Leben –
Cognition – Erkennen –
Absolute Idea – die absolute Idee –
=the Unity of Being and Thought
=the Concept Objectified Itself
=Inner Teleology (inner Purposefulness)
Hegel called the domains of Being and Essence Objective Logic, while he called the domain of Concept Subjective Logic.
The categories of Quality and those of Quantity are dealt with in the section of Being, while the Categories of Relation and those of Modality are so in the section of Essence.
In Subjective logic (dealing with Concepts), the section of Subjectivity dialectically deduces the Problems of Logic in the narrower sense, the section of Objectivity deals with Philosophy of Nature, and the section of Ideas is concerned about the fundamentals of Philosophy of Spirit.
We may refer to the beginning of his Logic as an example of how Hegel sets the original concept, makes the opposite from it and then produces the third as the synthesis of the first two.
How should the Absolute be thought? or
How should it be defined first?
It is evident, according to Hegel, that the Absolute is to be thought and defined as absolutely presuppositionless.
It is the most universal concept, the Concept whose determinate contents are abstracted from it, the Concept which has nothing more to abstract, namely the most indefinite and most immediate Concept, that is, the Concept of Being – Sein.
Since Being – Sein – which has neither determination nor content is equal to Nothing – Nichts.
While we think of Being in its purity, in fact we think of Nothing.
However, this Nothing cannot be maintained, but will return to and change into a Being again. For as long as Nothing is thought of, It exists as Being Thought.
The pure Being and the pure Nothing are, even if we think of them as “different” and “opposed”, one and the same. Both are indeterminate,i.e., without any definite character – Bestimmungslosigkeit.
To go from Being to Nothing, and from Nothing to Being again, is Becoming.
The Concept of Becoming
In other words, Becoming is a synthesis of Being and Nothing.
Thus, Becoming is the Truth of Being and Nothing. For example, while a child becomes a youth, this child is a youth and not a youth at the same time. Being and Nothing are mediated by Becoming, and they (= Being and Nothing) are preserved –aufgehoben = the past perfect of aufheben – regarding their essential natures, and thus, the concept which was synthesized is produced by the negation of negation.
However, Becoming,too, denies itself in such that Becoming becomes the state of “having become”.
This is a static state, embraced by Nothing.
Hegel called this Existence – Dasein.
This is the Being determined.
Here appears the Quality – Qualität – and it becomes Something – Etwas.
This Something can only be thought in relation to the other Something or Something Else which denies that original Something (in strife). As long as one is distinguished from and determined by the Other,
Finitude – Endlichkeit – may arise.
The Finitude, when denied, becomes Infinity –Unendlichkeit.
Hegel distinguished two kinds of Infinity:
False Infinity – schlechte Unendlichkeit –
= Endlessness – Endlosigkeit –
True Infinity –wahre Unendlichkeit –
1) False Infinity
Something does not have the Other outside of Itself, but has this Other in Itself.
Therefore, Something is Something and the Other at the same time. In other words, Something changes. Something is understood as Something and simultaneously as the Other.
Something becomes the Other, and this Other as Something becomes another Other which is Something in Itself.and so on. In this manner, the change is endless.Therefore, change is to be thought as the endless progress.
Thus, in Finitude, Endlessness is contained. Something organic has its end, i.e., is limited by the Other. This Other is also limited by another Other. And so on. Thus Finitude is endless. Always an new limit arises (or exists). There is no such thing as the last limit.
Therefore, the Finite is endless. This Endlessness Hegel called the False Infinity.
2) True Infinity
Contrary to the false infinity, as Something becomes Something else, this Something moves Itself into that some Other. Thus there are no longer Something and the Other. Something is in the Other. As long as Something and the Other are separate they are the Others to each other, but in this motion accomplished, their limit or distinction is negated or abolished – aufgehoben.
The limit that existed there was abolished=preserved limit – aufgehoben. It is the abolished preserved Finitude.
Die aufgehobene Endlichkeit – the abolished=preserved Finitude – is the True Infinity, while the continued – fortgestzt – Finitude is the False Infinity. In the True Infinity, the relation to the Other, namely the Finitude, is negated and abolished – aufgehoben.
The True Infinity is the Infinity Returning to Itself, is the Being for itself – Für-sich-sein. The True Infinity has no limit outside Itself.
At the limit, the True Infinity is not related to the Other, but is related to Itself – auf sich bezogen sein. In other words, it is not for the Other – Sein für Anderes, but is Being for Itself – Fürsichsein.
The most important in Hegel’s Logic is not detailed insights, but the fundamental way of thinking. The totality is not unrelated, but constitutes an organic relations as a whole which is mediated by dialectical movements.
An sich = implicite
hé dynamis = potentiality
acorn = a (potential) oak tree in itself
An sich discovers in itself contradiction or something negative and changes itself into
Für sich = explicite
hé energeia = actuality
oak tree = the negation of acorn
Für sich contains in itself the necessity to go beyond itself by negating Für sich.
An und für sich stands as the negation of its negation.
An und für sich = perfect oak tree bearing acorns.
In sich selbst gekehrte Sein or
wiedererhergestelltes Sein. I.e.,
An und für sich is a synthesis of an sich and für sich.
The dialects, i.e., hé dialektiké techné comes from dialegein = to have a dialogue.
dia means to distinguish, separate,
while legein means to
1) to pick up, to select,
2) to say, to express by words.
1) put separately, select, distinguish,
2)talk, explain, have a dialogue, discuss.
The title of this opus – Phenomenology of Spirit– at the first publication showed:
System der Wissenschaft
Die Phänomenologie der Erfahrung des Geistes
We shall have an opportunity later to discuss the importance of the Erfahrung in his first title.
Later both System der Wissenschaft— erster Teil” – System of The Science—Part I – and der Erfahrung – experience – were eliminated from the title of this book .cf. Die Phänomenologie des Geistes, p. 14
Philosophy of Nature
Philosophy of Nature reveals the Idea in the Other – Anderssein. We move from the domain of Logic to that of sensory beings. Here the Concept becomes Matter. Why the Idea went into the Other is because the Idea must become actual, and the nature is one of its stage or the Imperfect Actuality that the Idea must go through to attain Its good Actuality.
For Reason to become Nature is for It to ultimately become Spirit.
Externality – Äußerlichkeit – is Nature’s characteristic. The relationship and the mutual influence among the natural matter are and remain external.
Nature reveals necessity and contingency in its beings and the natural matter is governed by mechanical necessity. The contingency of the external influence hinders from its development. Therefore, in nature, Reason is found everywhere, and yet besides the rational, the illogical, the non-teleological, the irregular and the invalid are found in nature. They reveal that Nature’s essence consists in externality. In short, Nature is the Idea’s decay from Itself – der Abfall der Idee von sich selbst – , in It the necessity of the Concept and the contingency of the Individuality coexist. It is the powerlessness of nature – Ohnmacht der Nature – that Nature abstractly possesses the determination of the Concept and depends upon the external formation of the particular finish. As the development proceeds, the insufficiency of the Idea’s actualization is gradually lost and attains Life, where the birth of Spirit is prepared.
Hegel’s Philosophy of Nature is the least original of his philosophies and its majority is indebted to Schelling’s thought.
Philosophy of Spirit
V-i. Subjective Spirit – der subjektive Geist –
According to Hegel, the essence of Spirit and its determination is Freedom. Gradually becoming independent of Nature, Spirit actualizes its Potency of Freedom.
Philosophy of Subjective Spirit is divided into:
a) Anthropology ‹ investigates the human as natural beings
b) Phenomenology of Spirit ‹ inquires into the I as opposing to Nature as the non-I
c) Psychology ‹ inquires into the I which is reconciled with Nature as opposing to the I.
Spirit has not exhorted Itself from Nature in Anthropology which investigates the human’s natura beings.In this stage, Spirit still is natural Spirit, namely Soul, which is to be divided into:
Natural Soul ‹ exhibits the variety of races and nationalities as the natural characters of the human-beings as the inhabitants of the earth. Further, the variety of the ages, that of the sexes as well as that of awakening and sleep.
Sensing Soul ‹ is the double being of the unconscious whole and of the subject in the individual. Here the fetus, the hypnotic and the insane as well as habit ‹ Gewohnheit ‹ are dealt with. The habit is called by Hegel here the mechanism of the self-sense – Mechanismus des Selbstgefühls.
Actual Soul ‹ The body is the signs for expressing our Soul in the actual Soul. The gestures, the physiognomy and the phonology are discussed here.
Anthropology is the most unique among Subjective Spirit. The Soul of the body, the Spirit connected with corporeality is the object of its investigation.
b) Phenomenology of Spirit
Phenomenology investigates the I = Subject that opposes to Object. This is the Science of the I or Consciousness. The three stages, which correspond to the first three stages of Phenomenology of Spirit:
In Psychology, Spirit and Object are reconciled. The I becomes reconciled with Nature as the Non-I. This is the synthesis of the preceding two Sciences. This Science makes Spirit in the narrow sense its Object.
Theoretical Spirit = Intelligence
Practical Spirit = Will
Free Spirit = Will as the Free Intelligence
Philosophy of Nature
PHilosophy of Spirit
Phenomenology of Spirit
Feeling = Sense
Feeling = practical Feeling
Drive = Emotion, Arbitrariness
Happiness – Glückseligkeit –
Free Spirit = rational Will
= objective Spirit
Motive – Vorsatz –
Intention and Welfare
Good and Evil
Internal State Laws
International State Laws – äußerliches Staatsrecht –
Absolute Spirit = the Unity of Subjective and Objective Spirit
Arts ‹ appears in the Form of Intuition
Religion ‹ appears in the Form of Feeling
Philosophy ‹ appears in the Form of Thinking
V-ii. Objective Spirit
If the Science of Subjective Spirit may be viewed as Psychology in the wider sense, then the Science of Objective Spirit may be called Ethics in the wider sense. This Science contains in it Ethics, Philosophy of Law, political Philosophy and Philosophy of History. (See above!)
Will or Freedom attains in he Law the External (=Objective) Actuality, in Morality the Internal (=subjective) Actuality, and in the Ethical Order the Subjective and Objective Actuality, namely the Perfect Actuality.
a) The Law
The Law is the necessity established and acknowledged by Spirit, so it is the second, higher nature, and yet it is primarily the totality of prohibitions. Even if the law might appear to order, it is merely that what was the negative obtained a positive expression.
The Private Law – Privatrecht – contains i) the right to be a Person and ii) the order to respect the Others as Persons.
The Private Property – Eigentum – is the external domain that Will gives Itself. Without the Private Property, there would be no Person.
The Contract is that the private property by mutual agreement is released by a person A and is obtained by a person B.
to be completed.